Kirchhoff's Law

Lesson Plan: Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws

Grade Level: High school (11th-12th grade)

Subject: Applied Design, Skills, and Technology (ADST) Electronics. Also applicable for Science and Physics.

Duration: ~60 minutes

Required Equipment: Power Supply, Multimeter, Laptop with Wi-Fi access

Required Components: Breadboard, Resistors of varying values


  • Understand Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL).

  • Analyze complex circuits using these laws.

  • Apply hands-on experimentation to verify Kirchhoff's laws in real circuits.


Introduction (10 mins)

  • Introduce the fundamental principles behind Kirchhoff’s Circuit Laws.

  • Discuss the importance of KCL and KVL in circuit analysis.

  • Provide real-world scenarios where these laws are applicable.

Simulation Activity (15 mins)

  • Introduce students to a chosen simulation software/platform.

  • Virtually set up a circuit with multiple branches and loops.

  • Apply KCL and KVL to predict current and voltage behaviors within the simulation.

  • Observe and validate predictions.

Hands-on Activity: Exploring Kirchhoff’s Laws (20 mins)

  • Demonstrate the setup of a multi-loop circuit on a breadboard.

  • Guide students in taking measurements of current at various nodes and voltage across loops.

  • Compare these measurements with predictions based on Kirchhoff’s Laws.

  • Highlight instances where real-world measurements slightly deviate from theoretical values due to factors like component tolerances.

Interactive Discussion (10 mins)

  • Engage students in troubleshooting scenarios where a circuit doesn't behave as expected.

  • Use Kirchhoff's laws to identify potential issues.

  • Discuss the limitations and boundaries of applying Kirchhoff’s laws.

Conclusion and Recap (5 mins)

  • Summarize the essence and significance of Kirchhoff's laws in circuit analysis.

  • Encourage students to apply these laws to diverse circuits for a deeper understanding.


  • Formative assessment: Throughout the lesson, students will be evaluated based on their engagement in activities, their ability to correctly apply Kirchhoff’s laws in various scenarios, and their hands-on skills in setting up and measuring circuits.

  • Summative assessment: After the lesson, students will take a written test that probes their understanding of KCL and KVL, practical applications, and troubleshooting techniques. Practical skills can further be assessed by presenting them with a complex circuit and asking them to use Kirchhoff's laws to make accurate predictions about its behavior.

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